The evolution of the concept “entrepreneurship”
“Entrepreneurs attempt to predict and to take action over the change in the markets. Entrepreneurs bear the uncertainty of market dynamics“. Frank Knight, 1921 “Entrepreneurs are innovators who implement the change in the markets through the execution of new combinations that can take several forms: the introduction of a new good or better quality of it; the introduction of a new production method, the introduction of a new market, the conquest of a new source of supply for new materials or its parts, the creation of a new organization or the reorganization of an existing one”. Joseph Schumpeter, 1934 “Entrepreneurs recognize opportunities and take action to seize them. Entrepreneurs are who have skills to take advantage of market imperfections“. Israel Kirzner, 1973 “An entrepreneur is someone who creates new businesses“. William Gartner, 1985 “Entrepreneurship involves the study of sources of opportunities, processes of discovery, evaluation and exploitation of opportunities, and the people who discover, evaluate and exploit it. Entrepreneurship doesn´t require, but may include, the creation of new organizations“. Shane y Venkataraman, 2000 “Entrepreneurship is the mindset and process to create and develop economic activity, combining risk-taking, creativity and innovation with a strong management, in a new organization or an existing one. Entrepreneurship is, above all, a way of thinking or a mind-set. It includes the motivation and the ability of the individual, either independently or within an organization, to identify an opportunity and fight for it in order to produce new value or economic success“. Comisión de las Comunidades Europeas, 2003 Source: Emprender es posible. Luisa Alemany & Marcel Planellas (2011), Deusto, Grupo Planeta.